1. The coronaviruses

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are the largest group of viruses belonging to the Nidovirales order. The name “coronavirus” comes from the Latin “corona”, which means crown, due to its characteristic appearance that resembles a crown or solar corona.

The Coronaviruses


1.1a SARS-CoV-2


CoV can induce respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunction in their hosts and predominately respiratory infections in human. 

A total of seven species of coronavirus are found to be pathogenic to humans:

Species (1) HKU1, (2) OC43, (3) NL63 and (4) 229E: Mild upper respiratory tract infections

Species (5) SARS-CoV, (6) MERS-CoV and (7) SARS-2-CoV: Zoonotic and life threatening

1.1b SARS-CoV-2 vs SARS-CoV vs MERS-CoV

1b table

SARS was first known to human in 2002–2003, starting in Guangdong Province of China, infecting 8,098 people worldwide and with a CFR of 9.6%. MERS-CoV, on the other hand, first appeared in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, infected almost 2,500 people, mainly in the Middle East and Korea and with a high CFR of 34.4%. Recently, a new member to the coronavirus family, SARS-CoV-2, has led to a large-scale pandemic with an estimated CFR of 3.4%.


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1.2 The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do 

1.3 Viruses vs. Bacteria | What’s The Difference?

1.4 Swine Flu Pandemic

1.5 Coronavirus could attack immune system like HIV by targeting protective cells

1.5 CoV HIV

1.6 When and How Will COVID-19 End?

1.7 Can People Be Reinfected With Coronavirus?