CoV can induce respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunction in their hosts and predominately respiratory infections in human.
A total of seven species of coronavirus are found to be pathogenic to humans:
(1) HKU1, (2) OC43, (3) NL63 and (4) 229E: Mild upper respiratory tract infections
(5) SARS-CoV, (6) MERS-CoV and (7) SARS-2-CoV: Zoonotic and life threatening
1.1b SARS-CoV-2 vs SARS-CoV vs MERS-CoV
SARS was first known to human in 2002–2003, starting in Guangdong Province of China, infecting 8,098 people worldwide and with a CFR of 9.6%. MERS-CoV, on the other hand, first appeared in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, infected almost 2,500 people, mainly in the Middle East and Korea and with a high CFR of 34.4%. Recently, a new member to the coronavirus family, SARS-CoV-2, has led to a large-scale pandemic with an estimated CFR of 3.4%.
1. Peiris JSM, Guan Y & Yuen KY (2004): Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Nature Medicine 10: S88-S97.
2. Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y, et al. (2020): Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine. In press
Weiss SR & Leibowitz JL (2011): Coronavirus Pathogenesis. Advances in Virus Research 81: 85-164.
3. McBride R, Van Zyl M & Fielding CB (2014): The Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Is a Multifunctional Protein. Viruses 6: 2991-3018.
4. Fehr AR & Perlman S (2015): Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols. New York, NY.
5. Matoba Y, Abiko C, Ikeda T, et al. (2015): Detection of the Human Coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 between 2010 and 2013 in Yamagata. Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 68: 138-141.
6. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. (2020): A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine 382: 727-733.
7. Zumla A, Hui DS & Perlman S (2015): Middle East respiratory syndrome. The Lancet 386: 995-1007.
8. Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Li KSM, et al. (2005): Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 14040.
9. Kayali G & Peiris M (2015): A more detailed picture of the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 15: 495-497.
10. Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, et al. (2020): A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579: 270-273.
11. Poon LLM, Guan Y, Nicholls JM, et al. (2004): The aetiology, origins, and diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 4: 663-671.
1.2 The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do
1.3 Viruses vs. Bacteria | What’s The Difference?
1.4 Swine Flu Pandemic
1.5 Coronavirus could attack immune system like HIV by targeting protective cells
1.6 When and How Will COVID-19 End?
1.7 Can People Be Reinfected With Coronavirus?