APJO COVID-19 FAQs

在現時缺乏安全有效的疫苗和藥物的情況下,強制全民口罩也許是預防和消除COVID-19的最大希望。想知道更多詳情,請瀏覽:

 

11. Vaccine

Vaccine’s Development

As COVID-19’s death toll surpassed 250,000 globally, states and pharmaceuticals are exhausting all possible avenues in the fierce race of developing an effective vaccine against the coronavirus, which could be our best route back to normal life. Currently, over 100 vaccine candidates are in the development pipeline worldwide which features a diverse range of novel technology platforms, including DNA and RNA, virus-like particle, peptide, viral vector, recombinant protein and conventional approaches of live attenuated and inactivated viruses. Governments are expediting the trial timeline for new vaccines, with scientists hoping that effective vaccines will be on the horizon within 12 to 18 months. This still represents an unprecedented challenge given that the fastest record of developing an entirely new vaccine took 4 years and the typical success rate of below 10%. China, Germany, US and UK are among countries showing promising results in vaccine development. International cooperation and alliance could be the ultimate key to accomplishing this extraordinary mission of developing COVID-19 vaccines at pandemic speed.

Vaccine

APJO COVID-19 FAQs

Coronavirus Challenges in Primates, Compared

Science Translational Medicine

 

11.1 Vaccine

The virologists in Fudan University promptly analyzed the complete viral genome of the SARS-CoV-2 in just a few weeks after the earliest cluster of cases reported in December 2019. The full-length genomic sequence is available as open-access so that the whole world access to it promptly. This enables research on vaccine development around the world can be done in a more accurate, effective and faster way. As of 20 March 2020, 40 vaccine candidates were in development stage, among which ≥ 2 of them have entered clinical trial phase.

11 Vaccine Table_updated

Challenges: The length of clinical trials (phase I-III) are typically 12-18 weeks. It will probably take another 12 to 18 months to mass produce the vaccine for the general public. If successful, our chance of victory against the COVID-19 would be much higher. However, clinical trials are not a guaranteed solution to a disease. For example, although various stages of clinical trial on HIV vaccine have been carried out, none of them have been proven effective. Furthermore, all viruses evolve over time and the success of vaccination strategies depend much on their rate of mutation. Since SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus with unknown mutation rate, the result of vaccination strategy is still full of uncertainty.

References

1. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. (2020) A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China, Nature. In press.

2. Moderna doses first patient with mRNA-1273 in coronavirus vaccine trial. Available at: https://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/news/moderna-mrna-1273-coronavirus-trial/. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.

3. China approves first homegrown COVID-19 vaccine to enter clinical trials. Available at: https://www.bioworld.com/articles/433791-china-approves-first-homegrown-covid-19-vaccine-to-enter-clinical-trials. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.

11.2 Why Will A Coronavirus Vaccine Take 18 Months to Develop?

11.3 Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine

11.4 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says There’s a Chance Coronavirus Vaccine May Not Provide Immunity for Very Long

Dr. Anthony Fauci says there’s a chance coronavirus vaccine may not provide immunity for very long

11.5 Coronavirus Vaccine: China’s Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise in Human Trials

11.6 How “Super” Antibodies Could Help Create a Coronavirus Vaccine

11.7 How Close Are Scientists to Having A Coronavirus Vaccine? | The 11th Hour

11.8 Covid Vaccine Won’t End Pandemic til Late 2021, Lazard Poll Says

11.39 Covid Vaccine Won’t End Pandemic til Late 2021

11.9 Vaccine from Oxford and AstraZeneca shows Positive Response in Early Trial

11.40 Vaccine from Oxford and AstraZeneca shows Positive Response

11.10 Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Shows Promising Results but Hurdles Remain

11.11 Dr. Fauci Says CoV Vaccine Likely Won’t Be ‘Widely’ Available Until Several Months into 2021

11.42 Vaccine Wont Be Widely Available Until

11.12 A Big Unknown in Covid-19 Vaccine Development: How Long Will Protection Last?

11.43 A Big Unknown in Covid-19 Vaccine Development

11.13 The World’s Biggest Coronavirus Vaccine Study Begins, a U.S. Trial That Will Include 30,000 People to See if the Shots Really Work

The World’s Biggest Coronavirus Vaccine Study Begins, a U.s. Trial That Will Include 30,000 People to See if the Shots Really Work

11.14 Coronavirus Challenges in Primates, Compared

11.45 Coronavirus Challenges in Primates

11.15 Merck to Launch New Clinical Trial in September for Five-day Covid-19 Treatment

11.16 Novavax’s Coronavirus Vaccine Generates Promising Immune Response in Early Trial, Data Shows

Novavax’s Coronavirus Vaccine Generates Promising Immune Response in Early Trial, Data Shows

11.17 Here’s Exactly Where We Are with Vaccines and Treatments for COVID-19

11.17 Here is Exactly Where We Are with Vaccines and Treatments

11.18 Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

11.18

11.19 China’s Coronavirus Vaccines Are Leaping Ahead – But Face Challenges as Virus Wanes

11.19 China Coronavirus Vaccines Are Leaping Ahead

11.20 Vaccine AZD1222 Showed Robust Immune Responses in all Participants in Phase I/II Trial

11.20 Vaccine AZD1222 Showed Robust Immune Responses

11.21 Russia Completes Clinical Trials of COVID-19 Vaccine

11.22 Moderna Testing COVID-19 Vaccine in 30,000 People

11.23 Pfizer Enters Phase Three COVID-19 Vaccine Trial

11.24 4 Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trials Explained

11.25 Coronavirus Vaccine Development – JAMA Network

11.26 Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates

11.26 Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine NEJM

11.27 The COVID-19 Vaccine-Development Multiverse

11.27 The Vaccine Development NEJM

11.28 Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines – WHO

11.28 WHO Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines

11.29 Just 50% of Americans Plan to get a COVID-19 Vaccine

11.29 Just 50% of Americans Plan to get a COVID-19 Vaccine

11.30 Why Vaccine Rumours Stick— And Getting Them Unstuck

11.30 Why Vaccine Rumours Stick

11.31 Prices For COVID-19 Vaccines Are Starting to Come Into Focus

Prices for Covid-19 Vaccines Are Starting to Come Into Focus

11.32 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness

11.32 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development

11.33 Safety Concerns as Russia Pushes to Roll Out World’s First Coronavirus Vaccine

11.34 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says Chance of Coronavirus Vaccine Being Highly Effective Is ‘Not Great’

11.34 Chance of Coronavirus Vaccine Being Highly Effective Is Not Great’

11.35 Hopes for a Covid-19 Vaccine in Early 2021, but That’s Only the Start of the Story, Experts Say

Hopes for a Covid-19 vaccine in early 2021, but that’s only the start of the story, experts say

11.36 Moderna To Manufacture, Deliver 100 million Doses Coronavirus Vaccine

11.37 Russia Rejects Coronavirus Vaccine Criticism; UK Now in Recession

Putin’s Plan for Russia’s Coronavirus Vaccine is at ‘high Risk of Backfiring,’ Expert Says

11.38 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says He’s ‘Skeptical’ About Russia’s Coronavirus Vaccine

11.39 The U.S. Has Already Invested Billions in Potential Coronavirus Vaccines. Here’s Where the Deals Stand

The U.S. has already invested billions in potential coronavirus vaccines. Here’s where the deals stand

11.40 Moderna Begins Covid-19 Vaccine Trial Injections in Houston Participants

Moderna begins COVID-19 vaccine trial injections in Houston participants

11.41 The Risky Way to Speed Up a Coronavirus Vaccine

11.42 Chinese Regulator Says Vaccines Must Have 50 per cent Efficacy, Give 6 months’ Immunity

11.42 Chinese Regulator Says Vaccines Must Have 50 per cent Efficacy

11.43 Phase One of Covid-19 Vaccine Trial Underway in Qld

11.44 The Race of Developing Covid-19 Vaccines Heats Up

The Race of Developing Covid-19 Vaccines Heats Up

11.45 Challenge Trials: the Volunteers Offering to Be Infected With Coronavirus

Challenge trials

11.46 New Antibody Tests Offer Better Snapshot of Covid-19 Immunity

New Antibody Testt

11.47 China Approves Emergency Usage of COVID-19 Vaccines, Official Says

11.47 China Approves Emergency Usage of COVID-19 Vaccines, Official Says

11.48 As COVID-19 Deaths Surpass 60,000, Mexico Hits ‘Catastrophic Scenario’ Officials Warned About

11.48 Mexico

11.49 Fauci Says Rushing Out a Vaccine Could Harm Testing of Others

11.49 Fauci Says Rushing Out a Vaccine

11.50 Gottlieb: Vaccine for Those at-risk Could Get Emergency Authorization Before Year-end

Vaccine for those at-risk could get emergency authorization before year-end

11.51 CDC Director Says There Will Likely Be A Limited Supply of Coronavirus Vaccines At First

11.51 CDC Director Says There Will Likely Be A Limited Supply of Coronavirus Vaccines At First

11.52 A Covid-19 Vaccine Problem: People Who Are Afraid to Get One

A Covid-19 Vaccine Problem People Who Are Afraid to Get One

11.53 FDA Willing to Fast Track Coronavirus Vaccine Before Phase Three Trials End

11.53 FDA Willing to Fast Track Coronavirus Vaccine

11.54 How Close Are We To A Coronavirus Vaccine?

11.55 Astrazeneca Bolsters Covid-19 Vaccine Supply With New Deal

11.56 Pfizer CEO Confirms Late-stage Coronavirus Vaccine Trial May Have Results in October

Pfizer CEO confirms late-stage coronavirus vaccine trial may have results in October

11.57 Coronavirus Vaccine Trials Struggle To Get Black and Latinx Participation

11.58 Fauci: Approval For Coronavirus Vaccine Might Come By End Of Year

11.59 Race To Produce Coronavirus Vaccine Raises Both Hope And Concerns

11.60 How Effective Is Your Face Mask?

11.61 Coronavirus: Who Will Get the Vaccine First?

Coronavirus: Who Will Get the Vaccine First?

11.62 Late-stage COVID-19 Vaccine Trial on Pause Due to Possible Serious Side Effect. Here’s What that Means

Late-stage COVID-19 Vaccine Trial on Pause Due to Possible Serious Side Effect

11.63 Vaccine Makers Keep Safety Details Quiet, Alarming Scientists

Vaccine Makers Keep Safety Details Quiet, Alarming Scientists

11.64 Moderna Signals Slower Timeline for Covid-19 Vaccine

11.65 Trump Says U.S. Will Manufacture Enough Coronavirus Vaccine Doses for Every American by April

11.66 There Won’t Be Enough Coronavirus Vaccines For a Return to Normal Life Until 2022, WHO Scientist Says

11.67 How to Ship a Vaccine at –80°C, and Other Obstacles in the Covid Fight

11.68 Bill Gates on Coronavirus Pandemic, Vaccines

11.69 What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?

11.70 Coronavirus Vaccine Update: How Close Are We?

11.71 Johnson & Johnson Enters Late-stage Trial Testing its Coronavirus Vaccine