As COVID-19’s death toll surpassed 250,000 globally, states and pharmaceuticals are exhausting all possible avenues in the fierce race of developing an effective vaccine against the coronavirus, which could be our best route back to normal life. Currently, over 100 vaccine candidates are in the development pipeline worldwide which features a diverse range of novel technology platforms, including DNA and RNA, virus-like particle, peptide, viral vector, recombinant protein and conventional approaches of live attenuated and inactivated viruses. Governments are expediting the trial timeline for new vaccines, with scientists hoping that effective vaccines will be on the horizon within 12 to 18 months. This still represents an unprecedented challenge given that the fastest record of developing an entirely new vaccine took 4 years and the typical success rate of below 10%. China, Germany, US and UK are among countries showing promising results in vaccine development. International cooperation and alliance could be the ultimate key to accomplishing this extraordinary mission of developing COVID-19 vaccines at pandemic speed.
The virologists in Fudan University promptly analyzed the complete viral genome of the SARS-CoV-2 in just a few weeks after the earliest cluster of cases reported in December 2019. The full-length genomic sequence is available as open-access so that the whole world access to it promptly. This enables research on vaccine development around the world can be done in a more accurate, effective and faster way. As of 20 March 2020, 40 vaccine candidates were in development stage, among which ≥ 2 of them have entered clinical trial phase.
Challenges: The length of clinical trials (phase I-III) are typically 12-18 weeks. It will probably take another 12 to 18 months to mass produce the vaccine for the general public. If successful, our chance of victory against the COVID-19 would be much higher. However, clinical trials are not a guaranteed solution to a disease. For example, although various stages of clinical trial on HIV vaccine have been carried out, none of them have been proven effective. Furthermore, all viruses evolve over time and the success of vaccination strategies depend much on their rate of mutation. Since SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus with unknown mutation rate, the result of vaccination strategy is still full of uncertainty.
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2. Moderna doses first patient with mRNA-1273 in coronavirus vaccine trial. Available at: https://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/news/moderna-mrna-1273-coronavirus-trial/. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.
3. China approves first homegrown COVID-19 vaccine to enter clinical trials. Available at: https://www.bioworld.com/articles/433791-china-approves-first-homegrown-covid-19-vaccine-to-enter-clinical-trials. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.
11.2 Why Will A Coronavirus Vaccine Take 18 Months to Develop?
11.3 Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial
11.4 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says There’s a Chance Coronavirus Vaccine May Not Provide Immunity for Very Long
11.5 Coronavirus Vaccine: China’s Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise in Human Trials
11.6 How “Super” Antibodies Could Help Create a Coronavirus Vaccine
11.7 How Close Are Scientists to Having A Coronavirus Vaccine? | The 11th Hour
11.8 Covid Vaccine Won’t End Pandemic til Late 2021, Lazard Poll Says
11.9 Vaccine from Oxford and AstraZeneca shows Positive Response in Early Trial
11.10 Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Shows Promising Results but Hurdles Remain
11.11 Dr. Fauci Says CoV Vaccine Likely Won’t Be ‘Widely’ Available Until Several Months into 2021
11.12 A Big Unknown in Covid-19 Vaccine Development: How Long Will Protection Last?
11.13 The World’s Biggest Coronavirus Vaccine Study Begins, a U.S. Trial That Will Include 30,000 People to See if the Shots Really Work
11.14 Coronavirus Challenges in Primates, Compared
11.15 Merck to Launch New Clinical Trial in September for Five-day Covid-19 Treatment
11.16 Novavax’s Coronavirus Vaccine Generates Promising Immune Response in Early Trial, Data Shows
11.17 Here’s Exactly Where We Are with Vaccines and Treatments for COVID-19
11.18 Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
11.19 China’s Coronavirus Vaccines Are Leaping Ahead – But Face Challenges as Virus Wanes
11.20 Vaccine AZD1222 Showed Robust Immune Responses in all Participants in Phase I/II Trial
11.21 Russia Completes Clinical Trials of COVID-19 Vaccine
11.22 Moderna Testing COVID-19 Vaccine in 30,000 People
11.23 Pfizer Enters Phase Three COVID-19 Vaccine Trial
11.24 4 Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trials Explained
11.25 Coronavirus Vaccine Development – JAMA Network
11.26 Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates
11.27 The COVID-19 Vaccine-Development Multiverse
11.28 Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines – WHO
11.29 Just 50% of Americans Plan to get a COVID-19 Vaccine
11.30 Why Vaccine Rumours Stick— And Getting Them Unstuck
11.31 Prices For COVID-19 Vaccines Are Starting to Come Into Focus
11.32 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness
11.33 Safety Concerns as Russia Pushes to Roll Out World’s First Coronavirus Vaccine
11.34 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says Chance of Coronavirus Vaccine Being Highly Effective Is ‘Not Great’
11.35 Hopes for a Covid-19 Vaccine in Early 2021, but That’s Only the Start of the Story, Experts Say
11.36 Moderna To Manufacture, Deliver 100 million Doses Coronavirus Vaccine
11.37 Russia Rejects Coronavirus Vaccine Criticism; UK Now in Recession
11.38 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says He’s ‘Skeptical’ About Russia’s Coronavirus Vaccine
11.39 The U.S. Has Already Invested Billions in Potential Coronavirus Vaccines. Here’s Where the Deals Stand
11.40 Moderna Begins Covid-19 Vaccine Trial Injections in Houston Participants
11.41 The Risky Way to Speed Up a Coronavirus Vaccine
11.42 Chinese Regulator Says Vaccines Must Have 50 per cent Efficacy, Give 6 months’ Immunity
11.43 Phase One of Covid-19 Vaccine Trial Underway in Qld
11.44 The Race of Developing Covid-19 Vaccines Heats Up
11.45 Challenge Trials: the Volunteers Offering to Be Infected With Coronavirus
11.46 New Antibody Tests Offer Better Snapshot of Covid-19 Immunity
11.47 China Approves Emergency Usage of COVID-19 Vaccines, Official Says
11.48 As COVID-19 Deaths Surpass 60,000, Mexico Hits ‘Catastrophic Scenario’ Officials Warned About
11.49 Fauci Says Rushing Out a Vaccine Could Harm Testing of Others
11.50 Gottlieb: Vaccine for Those at-risk Could Get Emergency Authorization Before Year-end
11.51 CDC Director Says There Will Likely Be A Limited Supply of Coronavirus Vaccines At First
11.52 A Covid-19 Vaccine Problem: People Who Are Afraid to Get One
11.53 FDA Willing to Fast Track Coronavirus Vaccine Before Phase Three Trials End
11.54 How Close Are We To A Coronavirus Vaccine?
11.55 Astrazeneca Bolsters Covid-19 Vaccine Supply With New Deal
11.56 Pfizer CEO Confirms Late-stage Coronavirus Vaccine Trial May Have Results in October
11.57 Coronavirus Vaccine Trials Struggle To Get Black and Latinx Participation
11.58 Fauci: Approval For Coronavirus Vaccine Might Come By End Of Year
11.59 Race To Produce Coronavirus Vaccine Raises Both Hope And Concerns
11.60 How Effective Is Your Face Mask?
11.61 Coronavirus: Who Will Get the Vaccine First?
11.62 Late-stage COVID-19 Vaccine Trial on Pause Due to Possible Serious Side Effect. Here’s What that Means
11.63 Vaccine Makers Keep Safety Details Quiet, Alarming Scientists
11.64 Moderna Signals Slower Timeline for Covid-19 Vaccine
11.65 Trump Says U.S. Will Manufacture Enough Coronavirus Vaccine Doses for Every American by April
11.66 There Won’t Be Enough Coronavirus Vaccines For a Return to Normal Life Until 2022, WHO Scientist Says
11.67 How to Ship a Vaccine at –80°C, and Other Obstacles in the Covid Fight
11.68 Bill Gates on Coronavirus Pandemic, Vaccines
11.69 What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?
11.70 Coronavirus Vaccine Update: How Close Are We?
11.71 Johnson & Johnson Enters Late-stage Trial Testing its Coronavirus Vaccine
11.72 More Countries Host Final Trials of Chinese-made Vaccines
11.73 Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Participants Report Day-long Exhaustion, Fever and Headaches — But Say It’s Worth It
11.74 Is a Coronavirus Vaccine Possible in 2020?
11.75 China Joins WHO-led Covax Scheme to Share Coronavirus Vaccines Fairly
11.76 Inhaled Vaccines Under Development in Hong Kong Aim to Fight Coronavirus at Its Point of Attack
11.77 Johnson & Johnson Pauses Covid-19 Vaccine Trials Due to Sick Subject
11.78 Some 60,000 Injected with China’s COVID-19 Vaccines with No Ill Effect
11.79 U.K. Moves Toward Ethically Controversial Coronavirus Vaccine Trial