APJO COVID-19 FAQs

"COVID-19 FAQs" is a one-stop platform that helps you keep abreast of the latest developments in all fronts" said Editors-in-Chief, Dennis Lam & Jost Jonas

11. Vaccine

Vaccine’s Development

As COVID-19’s death toll surpassed 250,000 globally, states and pharmaceuticals are exhausting all possible avenues in the fierce race of developing an effective vaccine against the coronavirus, which could be our best route back to normal life. Currently, over 100 vaccine candidates are in the development pipeline worldwide which features a diverse range of novel technology platforms, including DNA and RNA, virus-like particle, peptide, viral vector, recombinant protein and conventional approaches of live attenuated and inactivated viruses. Governments are expediting the trial timeline for new vaccines, with scientists hoping that effective vaccines will be on the horizon within 12 to 18 months. This still represents an unprecedented challenge given that the fastest record of developing an entirely new vaccine took 4 years and the typical success rate of below 10%. China, Germany, US and UK are among countries showing promising results in vaccine development. International cooperation and alliance could be the ultimate key to accomplishing this extraordinary mission of developing COVID-19 vaccines at pandemic speed.

Vaccine

APJO COVID-19 FAQs

 

11.1 Vaccine

The virologists in Fudan University promptly analyzed the complete viral genome of the SARS-CoV-2 in just a few weeks after the earliest cluster of cases reported in December 2019. The full-length genomic sequence is available as open-access so that the whole world access to it promptly. This enables research on vaccine development around the world can be done in a more accurate, effective and faster way. As of 20 March 2020, 40 vaccine candidates were in development stage, among which ≥ 2 of them have entered clinical trial phase.

11 Vaccine Table_updated

Challenges: The length of clinical trials (phase I-III) are typically 12-18 weeks. It will probably take another 12 to 18 months to mass produce the vaccine for the general public. If successful, our chance of victory against the COVID-19 would be much higher. However, clinical trials are not a guaranteed solution to a disease. For example, although various stages of clinical trial on HIV vaccine have been carried out, none of them have been proven effective. Furthermore, all viruses evolve over time and the success of vaccination strategies depend much on their rate of mutation. Since SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus with unknown mutation rate, the result of vaccination strategy is still full of uncertainty. 

References

1. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. (2020) A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China, Nature. In press.

2. Moderna doses first patient with mRNA-1273 in coronavirus vaccine trial. Available at: https://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/news/moderna-mrna-1273-coronavirus-trial/. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.

3. China approves first homegrown COVID-19 vaccine to enter clinical trials. Available at: https://www.bioworld.com/articles/433791-china-approves-first-homegrown-covid-19-vaccine-to-enter-clinical-trials. Accessed on 2 Apr 2020.

11.2 How Long Will a Vaccine Really Take?

How Long Will a Vaccine Really Take.

11.3 Developing Covid-19 Vaccines at Pandemic Speed

Developing Covid-19 Vaccines at Pandemic Speed

11.4 The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape

The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape

11.5 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Status Report

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Status Report

11.6 Big Pharma and coronavirus vaccine development | COVID-19 Special

11.7 World leaders pledge €7.4bn to research Covid-19 vaccine

World leaders pledge €7.4bn to research Covid-19 vaccine

11.8 U.S. Covid-19 Cases Rise 1.9%; Deaths Top 70,000: Virus Update

U.S. Covid-19 Cases Rise 1.9%- Deaths Top 70,000 Virus Update

11.9 What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine

What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine

11.10 Finding a Covid-19 vaccine needs a global effort

Finding a Covid-19 vaccine needs a global effort

11.11 Pfizer begins human testing for experimental coronavirus vaccine in the US

Pfizer begins human testing for experimental coronavirus vaccine in the US

11.12 China now has more leading coronavirus vaccine candidates than any other country

China now has more leading coronavirus vaccine candidates than any other country

11.13 AstraZeneca to work with University of Oxford on Covid-19 vaccine development and distribution

AstraZeneca to work with University of Oxford on Covid-19 vaccine development and distribution(2)

11.14 UK researchers should know by July if coronavirus vaccine is effective

UK researchers should know by July if coronavirus vaccine is effective(2)

11.15 Potential coronavirus vaccine being tested in Germany could ‘supply millions’ by end of year

Potential coronavirus vaccine being tested in Germany could 'supply millions' by end of year

11.16 Developed Antibody Against Coronavirus, “Terrific Breakthrough”: Israel

Developed Antibody Against Coronavirus Terrific Breakthrough Israel

11.17 Coronavirus: Searching for a COVID-19 vaccine

11.18 How scientists are rushing to create a coronavirus vaccine | COVID-19 Special

11.19 Why Will A Coronavirus Vaccine Take 18 Months to Develop?

11.20 WHO’s Dr Mike Ryan: Coronavirus vaccine ‘at least a year’ away

11.21 Bill Gates: “Vaccine takes at least 18m!”

11.22 US: Testing COVID-19 vaccine in people (16 Mar)

11.23 WHO Says 70 Vaccines in the Works, With Three Leading Candidates

WHO Says 70 Vaccines in the Works, With Three Leading Candidates

11.24 China Approves Third Coronavirus Vaccine for Clinical Trials

China approves third coronavirus vaccine for clinical trials

11.25 UK researchers should know by July if coronavirus vaccine is effective

UK researchers should know by July if coronavirus vaccine is effective

11.26 Promising Early Results from CoV Vaccine Trial

11.27 CoV Vaccine Front-Runners Emerge, Rollouts Weighed

11.27 CoV Vaccine Front-Runners Emerge, Rollouts Weighed

11.28 Oxford Vaccine Fails. Moderna Vaccines Shows Good Results

11.29 Former FDA Chief on Moderna’s Early-stage Vaccine Trial Results

11.30 Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine

11.31 Coronavirus vaccine in China produces neutralizing antibodies in early-stage trial

11.30 Coronavirus vaccine in China produces neutralizing antibodies in early-stage trial

11.32 Dr. Anthony Fauci Says There’s a Chance Coronavirus Vaccine May Not Provide Immunity for Very Long

Dr. Anthony Fauci says there’s a chance coronavirus vaccine may not provide immunity for very long

11.33 China’s Sinovac Says Coronavirus Vaccine Has Shown Positive Results in Trials

11.34 Coronavirus Vaccine: China’s Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise in Human Trials

11.35 How “Super” Antibodies Could Help Create a Coronavirus Vaccine

11.36 America’s Update and Vaccine Development

11.37 Inside China’s Race For A Coronavirus Vaccine

11.38 How Close Are Scientists to Having A Coronavirus Vaccine? | The 11th Hour